for instance; for example; such as; consider the fact that;
immediately; for the time being; in no time; on the spot;
for that matter; in that case; for that reason; as for;
=>this is not necessarily the case;
this is often/certainly not the case;
this might not be the case;
this need not be the case;
common sense and experience tell us this is not the case/this assumption is a poor one;
=>the argument fails to substantiate this assumption;
perhaps ~that have nothing to do with~;
this argument by analogy is wholly unpersuasive;
this argument, nonetheless, is based on an oversimplified analysis of the cause of~ and the presumptuous correlation is unacceptable;
=>although this is entirely possible, the argument provides no evidence to support this assumption;
if this is not the case, then it is entirely possible that~;
lacking evidence to confirm this assumption, it is entirely possible that ~;
would have to; should; ought to; must; have to; be required to; would be;
overall group of~; in general; as a whole; on the whole;
assert; claim; postulate; declare; affirm; emphasize; advocate;
indicate; reveal; reflect; demonstrate; imply; illustrate; infer; predict;
possibility; likelihood (in all likelihood); alternative/alternative means of ~; explanation; occurence; validity; legitimacy; credibility;
The mere fact thatticket sales in recent years for screenplay-based movies have exceeded those for book-based movies is insufficient evidence to conclude that writing screenplays now provides greater financial opportunity for writers.
The fact thatthe nearby city has a weakening economy does not prove that (does not support the claim that/does not ensure that/lends no strong support to the conclusion that) the city will not contribute significantly to tax revenues.
The fact thatthe student performance improved after the application of interactive computer instruction does not necessarily imply that the new teaching method is responsible for the achievements.
The argument fails to rule out the possibility that a writer engage in both types of writing as well as other types.
The argument simply equatessuccess with movie ticket sales, which is unwarranted.
The author assumes thatphysical capabilities are the only attributes necessary to operate a motor vehicle.
The author provides no evidence that the realism of photography is the reason for its predominance.
This assumption presents a false dilemma, since the two media are not necessarily mutually exclusive alternatives.
Common sense tells us that a photographer can succeed by working in both media.
While this may be true in some cases, but it is equally possible thatonly companies with products that are already best-sellers can afford the higher ad rates that popular shows demand.
Lacking some specific information abouthow these other employees responded, it is impossible to assess the reliability of the survey’s results or to make an informed recommendation.
The editorial fails to take into account possible differences betweenEast and West Cambria that are relevant to how drivers react to speed-limit changes.
While it is true that many voters change their minds several times before voting, and that some remain undecided until entering the voting booth, this is not true of anyone.
Unless the author can demonstrate thatthe city will incur expenses that are not covered by the increased revenues from these projects, the author’s concern about these issues is unfounded.
The author fails to consider and rule out other factors that might account for proportional decreases in spending on food.
The author ignores/fails to take into account (consider/explain) other likely benefits of agricultural technology that affect food pieces only indirectly or not at all.
Unlessthe original cast and production team are involved in making the sequel, there is a good chance it will not be financially successful.
The author is presenting a false dilemma by imposing an either-or choice between two courses of action that need not be mutually exclusive.
Comprehensive analysis is necessary to identify the actual cause(s) ofthe company’s lowered profitability.
Therefore, any decision aimed at addressing the problem of falling circulation must be based on more thorough investigation to gather sufficient data in order to narrow down and locate the actual causes(s) of the problem.
From the survey quoted in the argument, however, we find no sign of such procedures for random sampling, and have good reason to doubt if the sample is representative enough to reflect the general attitudes of all workers as a whole.
When samples are used to make general claims about a particular group, the samples should be close enough in time to the generalization they are used to support, so that historical changes will not invalidate the generalization.
The problem is that the two situations are not similar enough to justify the analogical deduction.
The argument rests on the gratuitous/unreasonable assumption thatApia’s work and quality are more superior to Macadam.
The arguer fails to establish a causal relationship betweenthe homework frequency and the performance of students.
The arguer’s conclusion depends on the questionable assumption thatBecton Pharmaceuticals will not be able to maintain its present position in the market.
The arguer fails to provide any information concerningthe performance of the new quality control manager.
The reasoning (assumption) thatall employees at Acme Publishing Company need to improve their reading speed is open to doubt/doubtful/suspicious/unreliable/problematic/questionable/unconvincing/unfounded/unwarrantec/groundless.
Another assumption in short of legitimacyis the causal relationship claimed between taking the Easy Read course and the reading ability of the first graduate.
The arguer oversimplifies the factors that would influence the overall quality of a game software.
The arguer overemphasizes the importance of carrying out the regulation.
The conclusion reached in this argument is invalid and probably misleading.
The evidence provided in this argument is not sufficient to validate the assumption that funding for education is not a priority for most people.
The statistical evidence/the result of the survey upon which the argument relies is too vague to be informative.
The result of the study is incomplete to be conclusive.
The argument relies on figures that are too imprecise to support the conclusion drawn.
If the subjects for the study were randomly chosen and represent a diverse cross section of the population of…, the results will be reliable regardless of …
Since the arguer makes a claim about … in general, the sample for the survey should be able to represent all …
Yet we are told nothing about the way the poll was conducted and how well it represented the public opinions.
The example cited, while suggestive of these trends, is insufficient to warrant their truth because there is no reason to believe that the data draw from…is representative of…
The arguer assumes that what is true of a group as a whole is necessarily true of each member of that group.
The argument assumes that what is true of group of people taken collectively is also true of any individual within that group.
The argument attributes a characteristic of an individual member of a group to the group as a whole.
The arguer supports the conclusion by over-generalizing from a specific piece of evidence.
The arguer draws a hasty conclusion which is based on inadequate evidence about…
The arguer generalizes on the basis of a sample consisting of atypical cases.
The arguer uses a few exceptional cases as the basis for a claim about what is true in general.
The arguer draws a conclusion that is broader in scope than is warranted by the evidence advanced.
The arguer infers from what has been observed to be the case under exceptional conditions to what is principle true.
The self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by many intelligence tests), yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. Yale School of Management Professor Victor Vroom?s “expectancy theory” provides an account of when people will decide whether to exert self-control to pursue a particular goal.
The behavior of groups cannot be understood solely as the aggregate behavior of individuals. It is not possible, for example, to understand modern warfare by summing up the aggressive tendencies of individuals. A person may behave very differently in a crowd—say, when at a football game, at a religious service, or on a picket line—than when alone or with family members. Several children together may vandalize a building, even though none of them would do it on his or her own. By the same token, an adult will often be more generous and responsive to the needs of others as a member of, say, a club or religious group than he or she would be inclined to be in private. The group situation provides the rewards of companionship and acceptance for going along with the shared action of the group and makes it difficult to assign blame or credit to any one person.
In addition to belonging to the social and cultural settings into which they are born, people voluntarily join groups based on shared occupations, beliefs, or interests (such as unions, political parties, or clubs). Membership in these groups influences how people think of themselves and how others think of them. These groups impose expectations and rules that make the behavior of members more predictable and that enable each group to function smoothly and retain its identity. The rules may be informal and conveyed by example, such as how to behave at a social gathering, or they may be written rules that are strictly enforced. Formal groups often signal the kind of behavior they favor by means of rewards (such as praise, prizes, or privileges) and punishments (such as threats, fines, or rejections).
Affiliation with any social group, whether one joins it voluntarily or is born into it, brings some advantages of larger numbers: the potential for pooling resources (such as money or labor), concerted effort (such as strikes, boycotts, or voting), and identity and recognition (such as organizations, emblems, or attention from the media). Within each group, the members? attitudes, which often include an image of their group as being superior to others, help ensure cohesion within the group but can also lead to serious conflict with other groups. Attitudes toward other groups are likely to involve stereotyping—treating all members of a group as though they were the same and perceiving in those people?s actual behavior only those qualities that fit the observer?s preconceptions. Such social prejudice may include blind respect for some categories of people,such as doctors or clergy, as well as blind disrespect for other categories of people who are, say, foreign-born or women.