1. 动名词的否定式 not+动名词
He was praised for having done a good deed.
be/get used to
look forward to
get down to
a waiting car
a waiting room
a sleeping boy
a sleeping bag
Do you mind my/me smoking here?
I insisted on my husband/husband’s paying the bill.
There are many reasons for animals dying out.
His smoking caused the fire in the forest.
3)there be的动名词的复合结构为there being如：
What’s the chance of there being a rain tomorrow?
After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus (her unions with her brothers had produced no children). After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit. According to tradition, she killed herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC. She was outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters, but soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt then became the Roman province of Aegyptus.
在凯撒于公元前44年被谋杀之后，埃及艳后克里奥帕特拉与马克·安东尼(Mark Antony)联合起来对抗凯撒的法定继承人——盖乌斯·尤利乌斯·凯撒·屋大维(Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus，他后来被称作奥古斯都，Augustus)。她与安东尼诞下了三个孩子：双胞胎姐弟—克里奥帕特拉·赛勒涅二世(Cleopatra Selene II )和亚历山大·赫利俄斯(Alexander Helios)，以及幼子托勒密·菲拉德尔福斯(Ptolemy Philadelphus)。在此之前，克里奥帕特拉与她的兄弟们的结合并没有留下子嗣。在亚克兴战役(Battle of Actium)中败给屋大维之后，安东尼选择了自杀，克里奥帕特拉也如此效仿。根据传统的记载，埃及艳后在公元前30年八月十二日引毒蛇将自己咬死。在她死后，其子凯撒里昂(Caesarion)被支持者拥戴为法老，但他也很快被屋大维下令处死。从此，埃及变为了罗马的埃及行省(拉丁文写作Aegyptus)。
Relationship with Julius Caesar
Eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar's anger toward Ptolemy, Cleopatra had herself secretly smuggled into his palace to meet with Caesar. Plutarch, in his Life of Julius Caesar gives a vivid description of how she entered past Ptolemy’s guards rolled up in a carpet that Apollodorus the Sicilian was carrying. She became Caesar’s mistress and nine months after their first meeting, in 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to their son, Ptolemy Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion, which means "little Caesar."
埃及艳后克里奥帕特拉想要利用凯撒对托勒密的愤怒，便设法秘密潜入凯撒的住处与他见面。普鲁塔克(Plutarch，罗马帝国时期的希腊历史学家)在他的凯撒传记中生动地描述了这一过程：她将自己裹在毯子里，由西西里的阿波罗多鲁斯(Apollodorus the Sicilian)扛进凯撒的住处，以此躲过托勒密的卫兵的眼睛。她成为了凯撒的情妇，并且在两人第一次见面的九个月之后，公元前47年，产下了他们的儿子—托勒密·凯撒(Ptolemy Caesar,)。他绰号凯撒里昂，意思是”小凯撒“。
At this point, Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After Mithridates raised the siege of Alexandria, Caesar defeated Ptolemy's army at the Battle of the Nile; Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as her new co-ruler. When Caesar left Egypt he stationed a Roman occupying army of three legions there under the command of Rufio.
Although Cleopatra was 21 years old when they met and Caesar was 52, they became lovers during Caesar’s stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father of her son and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephew Octavian instead.
Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion visited Rome in the summer of 46 BC. The Egyptian queen resided in one of Caesar's country houses, which included the Horti Caesaris just outside Rome (as a foreign head of state she was not allowed inside Rome's pomerium). The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people and caused a scandal because the Roman dictator was already married to Calpurnia Pisonis. But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as Isisin the temple of Venus Genetrix (the mythical ancestress of Caesar's family), which was situated at the Forum Julium. The Roman orator Cicero said in his preserved letters that he hated the foreign queen. Cleopatra and her entourage were still in Rome when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March 44 BC., returning with her relatives to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died – allegedly poisoned by his older sister – Cleopatra made Caesarion her co-regent and successor and gave him the epithets Theos Philopator Philometor (= Father- and mother-loving God).
克里奥帕特拉、托勒密十四世和凯撒里昂于公元前46年夏天访问了罗马。埃及艳后下他在凯撒在乡下的庄园中，包括罗马近郊的凯撒庄园(拉丁文Horti Caesaris。作为外国元首，克里奥帕特拉不可以进入罗马的城市边界，拉丁文pomerium)。凯撒和克里奥帕特拉之间的关系，对于罗马人民来说是显而易见的事情。这成了一桩丑闻，因为罗马独裁者已经和卡普尼亚·皮索尼斯。凯撒甚至在位于尤利乌斯广场(Forum Julium)专门供奉自己的家族神话祖先母亲维纳斯(Venus Genetrix)的神庙中立起了一座克里奥帕特拉的黄金塑像。罗马著名演说家西塞罗(Cicero)甚至在自己的私人信件中直接表达了他对这位外国女王的怨恨。凯撒在公元前44年三月十五日被刺杀时，克里奥帕特拉和克里奥帕特拉和她的随行人员正准备从罗马返回埃及。在托勒密十四世死后(他有可能正是被自己的姐姐克里奥帕特拉毒杀的)，她将凯撒里昂立为自己的共治者和继承人，并赐予他爱父亲爱母亲的神这个称号(希腊语是Theos Philopator Philometor)。
Leadership and dedication to your job might improve your favour in the eyes of your boss but won't win you friends among your peers.
Colleagues appreciate social sensitivities more than professional skills in their co-workers, a new study has found.
Being effective – or the ability to deliver results and not let your teammates down – was voted the most crucial trait in a colleague, attracting 37pc of votes, according to a survey of around 2,000 UK adults.
Three in 10 respondents highlighted optimism and enthusiasm as the most important quality in a workmate, prioritising someone who would be able to keep team spirits high during stressful times.
The next most popular feature was trustworthiness, which was deemed to be more relevant to the making of a good colleague than taking the initiative, being knowledgeable and having organisation skills.
Lurking at the lower end of the hierarchy were traits that might be more commonly associated with the workplace, such as leadership and dedication.
"What is interesting from this research is that British workers really are quite focussed – they rated effectiveness the number-one most important trait in their ideal colleague," said Declan Byrne, managing director at One4all Rewards.
"But it’s not all results focussed. British workers also hugely value having colleagues who can act as a bit of a friend – keeping everyone’s spirits up, as well as sharing secrets and worries."
How to be the most loved colleague at work：
Be effective and deliver results (37pc)
Be optimistic and enthusiastic (31pc)
Be trustworthy enough to keep secrets or listen to worries (30pc)
Display initiative (27pc)
Be knowledgeable about what you do (25pc)
Meet deadlines and be organised (24pc)
Be empathetic enough to offer a shoulder to cry on (18pc)
Show leadership (13pc)
Be dedicated – arrive early and stay late (11pc)
Countless arguments have been waged over the superiority of one beverage over the other. But what does the scientific evidence say?
George Orwell may have written that “tea is one of the mainstays of civilization in this country” – but even we British have to acknowledge that our national drink is facing stiff competition from the espressos, cAPpuccinos, and lattes invading our shores.
Despite the dangers of wading into such a charged argument, BBC Future decided to weigh up the relative merits of each drink. There’s no accounting for taste, of course, but we have combed the scientific literature for their real, measurable effects on our body and mind.
The wake-up call
For many, the caffeine kick is the primary reason we choose either beverage; it’s the oil to our engines when we’re still feeling a bit creaky in the morning. Based purely on its composition, coffee should win hands down: a cup of tea has about half the dose (40 milligrams) of the stimulant caffeine that you would find in a standard cup of brewed filter coffee (80 to 115 milligrams). Yet this doesn’t necessarily reflect the jolt of the wake-up call.
Dosing subjects with either tea or coffee, one study found that both beverages left subjects feeling similarly alert later in the morning.
Verdict: Against logic, tea seems to provide just as powerful a wake-up call as coffee. It’s a draw.
The biggest differences between coffee and tea may emerge once your head hits the pillow.
Comparing people drinking the same volume of tea or coffee over a single day, researchers at the University of Surrey in the UK confirmed that although both drinks lend similar benefits to your attention during the day, coffee drinkers tend to find it harder to drop off at night – perhaps because the higher caffeine content finally catches up with you.
Tea drinkers, in contrast, had longer and more restful slumbers.
Verdict: Tea offers many of the benefits of coffee, without the sleepless nights – a clear win.
Along with red wine, coffee and tea are both known to turn our pearly whites a murky yellow and brown. But which is worse?
Most dentists seem to agree that tea’s natural pigments are more likely to adhere to dental enamel than coffee’s – particularly if you use a mouthwash containing the common antiseptic chlorhexidine, which seems to attract and bind to the microscopic particles.
Verdict: If you want a perfect smile, coffee may be the lesser of two evils.
A balm for troubled souls…
In England, it’s common to give “tea and sympathy” to a distressed friend – the idea being that a cup of Earl Grey is medicine for troubled minds. In fact, there is some evidence that tea can soothe your nerves: regular tea drinkers do tend to show a calmer physiological response to unsettling situations (such as public speaking), compared to people drinking herbal infusions. Overall, people who drink three cups a day appear to have a 37% lower risk of depression than those who do not drink tea.
Coffee doesn’t have the same reputation; indeed, some report that it makes them feel like their nerves are jangling. Yet there is some evidence that it too may protect against long-term mental health problems. A recent “meta-analysis” (summarising the results of studies involving more than 300,000 participants) found that each cup of coffee a day seems to reduce your risk of developing depression by around 8%. In contrast, other beverages (such as sweetened soft drinks) only increase your risk of developing mental health problems.
Verdict: Based on this limited evidence, it’s a draw.
…and a balm for bodies……
Similarly tantalising, though preliminary, epidemiological studies have suggested that both coffee and tea offer many other health-giving benefits. A few cups of either beverage a day appears to reduce your risk of diabetes, for instance.
Both drinks also seem to moderately protect the heart, although the evidence seems to be slightly stronger for coffee, while tea also appears to be slightly protective against developing a range of cancers – perhaps because of its antioxidants.
Verdict: Another draw – both drinks are a surprising, health-giving elixir.
Overall verdict: Much as we Brits would have liked tea to come out the clear victor, we have to admit there is little between the two drinks besides personal taste. Based solely on the fact that it allows you to get a better night’s sleep, we declare tea the winner.