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全面解析托福阅读中动名词的5种用法

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托福阅读是托福考试中非常重要的项目,也是考生有很大机会取得高分的项目。下面为大家带来全面解析托福阅读中动名词的5种用法一文,希望对大家托福备考有所帮助。更多精彩敬请关注学习啦 !

全面解析托福阅读中动名词的5种用法

1. 动名词的否定式 not+动名词

2. 动名词的完成式

完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。

He was praised for having done a good deed.

3. 动词+介词构成的短语,其后跟动名词做宾语

be/get used to

feel like

insist on

devote…to…

put off

look forward to

succeed in

get down to

set about

give up

4. 可置于名词前作定语,表示被修饰的名词的用途和性能

a waiting car

a waiting room

a sleeping boy

a sleeping bag

5. 动名词的复合结构

形容词性的物主代词/名词所有格+动名词构=动名词的复合结构

句子中可作主语、宾语、表语等。物主代词和名词所有格是动名词的逻辑主语。

Do you mind my/me smoking here?

I insisted on my husband/husband’s paying the bill.

1)在口语和非正式英语中,这种结构不用在句首,常用人称代词宾格代替物主代词,用名词普通格代指所有格。如:

There are many reasons for animals dying out.

2)如果动名词的复合结构在句首,就必须用形容词性的物主代词或名词所有格。如:

His smoking caused the fire in the forest.

3)there be的动名词的复合结构为there being如:

What’s the chance of there being a rain tomorrow?

托福阅读材料:埃及艳后传记 

After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus (her unions with her brothers had produced no children). After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit. According to tradition, she killed herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC. She was outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters, but soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt then became the Roman province of Aegyptus.

在凯撒于公元前44年被谋杀之后,埃及艳后克里奥帕特拉与马克·安东尼(Mark Antony)联合起来对抗凯撒的法定继承人——盖乌斯·尤利乌斯·凯撒·屋大维(Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus,他后来被称作奥古斯都,Augustus)。她与安东尼诞下了三个孩子:双胞胎姐弟—克里奥帕特拉·赛勒涅二世(Cleopatra Selene II )和亚历山大·赫利俄斯(Alexander Helios),以及幼子托勒密·菲拉德尔福斯(Ptolemy Philadelphus)。在此之前,克里奥帕特拉与她的兄弟们的结合并没有留下子嗣。在亚克兴战役(Battle of Actium)中败给屋大维之后,安东尼选择了自杀,克里奥帕特拉也如此效仿。根据传统的记载,埃及艳后在公元前30年八月十二日引毒蛇将自己咬死。在她死后,其子凯撒里昂(Caesarion)被支持者拥戴为法老,但他也很快被屋大维下令处死。从此,埃及变为了罗马的埃及行省(拉丁文写作Aegyptus)。

Relationship with Julius Caesar

Eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar's anger toward Ptolemy, Cleopatra had herself secretly smuggled into his palace to meet with Caesar. Plutarch, in his Life of Julius Caesar gives a vivid description of how she entered past Ptolemy’s guards rolled up in a carpet that Apollodorus the Sicilian was carrying. She became Caesar’s mistress and nine months after their first meeting, in 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to their son, Ptolemy Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion, which means "little Caesar."

埃及艳后克里奥帕特拉想要利用凯撒对托勒密的愤怒,便设法秘密潜入凯撒的住处与他见面。普鲁塔克(Plutarch,罗马帝国时期的希腊历史学家)在他的凯撒传记中生动地描述了这一过程:她将自己裹在毯子里,由西西里的阿波罗多鲁斯(Apollodorus the Sicilian)扛进凯撒的住处,以此躲过托勒密的卫兵的眼睛。她成为了凯撒的情妇,并且在两人第一次见面的九个月之后,公元前47年,产下了他们的儿子—托勒密·凯撒(Ptolemy Caesar,)。他绰号凯撒里昂,意思是”小凯撒“。

At this point, Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After Mithridates raised the siege of Alexandria, Caesar defeated Ptolemy's army at the Battle of the Nile; Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as her new co-ruler. When Caesar left Egypt he stationed a Roman occupying army of three legions there under the command of Rufio.

凯撒放弃了兼并埃及的计划,转而支持克里奥帕特拉取得王位。在米特里达梯(Mithridates)开始围攻亚历山大之后,凯撒在尼罗河战役中击败了托勒密的军队。托勒密十三世溺死在尼罗河中,而凯撒帮助克里奥帕特拉重夺王位,并且立她的另一个弟弟托勒密十四世(Ptolemy XIV)为她的新共治者。凯撒离开埃及时留下了一支三个军团组成的罗马军队,交给鲁菲奥(Rufio)指挥。

Although Cleopatra was 21 years old when they met and Caesar was 52, they became lovers during Caesar’s stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father of her son and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephew Octavian instead.

凯撒于公元前48年和47年在埃及逗留期间,尽管克里奥帕特拉当时仅有21岁而凯撒已经有52岁,他们还是成为了恋人。克里奥帕特拉声称凯撒是他儿子的生父,并且希望凯撒指定他们的孩子作为继承人。然而凯撒拒绝了她的要求,并将自己的甥孙屋大维(Octavian)立为继承人。

Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion visited Rome in the summer of 46 BC. The Egyptian queen resided in one of Caesar's country houses, which included the Horti Caesaris just outside Rome (as a foreign head of state she was not allowed inside Rome's pomerium). The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people and caused a scandal because the Roman dictator was already married to Calpurnia Pisonis. But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as Isisin the temple of Venus Genetrix (the mythical ancestress of Caesar's family), which was situated at the Forum Julium. The Roman orator Cicero said in his preserved letters that he hated the foreign queen. Cleopatra and her entourage were still in Rome when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March 44 BC., returning with her relatives to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died – allegedly poisoned by his older sister – Cleopatra made Caesarion her co-regent and successor and gave him the epithets Theos Philopator Philometor (= Father- and mother-loving God).

克里奥帕特拉、托勒密十四世和凯撒里昂于公元前46年夏天访问了罗马。埃及艳后下他在凯撒在乡下的庄园中,包括罗马近郊的凯撒庄园(拉丁文Horti Caesaris。作为外国元首,克里奥帕特拉不可以进入罗马的城市边界,拉丁文pomerium)。凯撒和克里奥帕特拉之间的关系,对于罗马人民来说是显而易见的事情。这成了一桩丑闻,因为罗马独裁者已经和卡普尼亚·皮索尼斯。凯撒甚至在位于尤利乌斯广场(Forum Julium)专门供奉自己的家族神话祖先母亲维纳斯(Venus Genetrix)的神庙中立起了一座克里奥帕特拉的黄金塑像。罗马著名演说家西塞罗(Cicero)甚至在自己的私人信件中直接表达了他对这位外国女王的怨恨。凯撒在公元前44年三月十五日被刺杀时,克里奥帕特拉和克里奥帕特拉和她的随行人员正准备从罗马返回埃及。在托勒密十四世死后(他有可能正是被自己的姐姐克里奥帕特拉毒杀的),她将凯撒里昂立为自己的共治者和继承人,并赐予他爱父亲爱母亲的神这个称号(希腊语是Theos Philopator Philometor)。

托福阅读材料:如何成为人见人爱的同事  

Leadership and dedication to your job might improve your favour in the eyes of your boss but won't win you friends among your peers.

有领导能力、尽心工作,这是老板眼中的加分项,却不会让你在同事当中多几个朋友。

Colleagues appreciate social sensitivities more than professional skills in their co-workers, a new study has found.

最新调查显示,与专业技能相比,同事更欣赏那些社交敏感度高的人。

Being effective – or the ability to deliver results and not let your teammates down – was voted the most crucial trait in a colleague, attracting 37pc of votes, according to a survey of around 2,000 UK adults.

根据一项针对近两千位英国成年人开展的调查,工作有成效,或者说是工作有成果,不让你的团队成员失望,是同事最看中的品质,支持率为37%。

Three in 10 respondents highlighted optimism and enthusiasm as the most important quality in a workmate, prioritising someone who would be able to keep team spirits high during stressful times.

三成受访者认为,同事具有乐观和热情的品质最重要,在工作紧张时,能让团队士气保持高涨的同事最受欢迎。

The next most popular feature was trustworthiness, which was deemed to be more relevant to the making of a good colleague than taking the initiative, being knowledgeable and having organisation skills.

第二大最受欢迎的品质是可靠性,与积极主动、知识渊博和有组织能力相比,受访者认为值得信赖的同事更是个好同事。

Lurking at the lower end of the hierarchy were traits that might be more commonly associated with the workplace, such as leadership and dedication.

排在末位的是一些与工作相关度更高的品质,比如领导能力和敬业精神。

"What is interesting from this research is that British workers really are quite focussed – they rated effectiveness the number-one most important trait in their ideal colleague," said Declan Byrne, managing director at One4all Rewards.

“有趣的是,英国的员工对工作真的很用心,他们认为理想同事最重要的品质是工作有成效”,One4all Rewards公司总经理德克兰-伯恩说。

"But it’s not all results focussed. British workers also hugely value having colleagues who can act as a bit of a friend – keeping everyone’s spirits up, as well as sharing secrets and worries."

“但也不全以工作结果为导向。英国员工也对那些有点儿像朋友的同事评价很高,能让所有人精神焕发,还能和同事分享秘密与担忧。”

How to be the most loved colleague at work:

如何成为人见人爱的同事:

Be effective and deliver results (37pc)

工作有成效,富有成果(37%)

Be optimistic and enthusiastic (31pc)

乐观、热情(31%)

Be trustworthy enough to keep secrets or listen to worries (30pc)

在保密方面足够守信,或能倾听别人的担忧(30)

Display initiative (27pc)

富有主动性(27%)

Be knowledgeable about what you do (25pc)

对于你在做什么很有见解(25%)

Meet deadlines and be organised (24pc)

能按时完成工作,井然有序(24%)

Be empathetic enough to offer a shoulder to cry on (18pc)

有同情心,能给别人慰藉(18%)

Show leadership (13pc)

有领导能力(13%)

Be dedicated – arrive early and stay late (11pc)

敬业—早到晚走(11%)

托福阅读背景资料之茶和咖啡 

Countless arguments have been waged over the superiority of one beverage over the other. But what does the scientific evidence say?

关于这两种饮料孰优孰劣的问题已经引发了无数争论。但是科学证据是怎样的呢?

George Orwell may have written that “tea is one of the mainstays of civilization in this country” – but even we British have to acknowledge that our national drink is facing stiff competition from the espressos, cAPpuccinos, and lattes invading our shores.

乔治·奥威尔或许写过“茶是这个国家文明的一个支柱”这样的句子——但我们英国人也要承认,随着浓咖啡、卡布奇诺和拿铁侵入国门,我们的全民饮料正面临着激烈的竞争。

Despite the dangers of wading into such a charged argument, BBC Future decided to weigh up the relative merits of each drink. There’s no accounting for taste, of course, but we have combed the scientific literature for their real, measurable effects on our body and mind.

尽管探讨这个敏感话题充满风险,“BBC未来”栏目还是决定对每种饮品的相对优点进行评估。当然,百人百味,但通过精心梳理科学文献,我们找出了它们对人体和大脑真实的、可测量的影响。

The wake-up call

醒脑剂

For many, the caffeine kick is the primary reason we choose either beverage; it’s the oil to our engines when we’re still feeling a bit creaky in the morning. Based purely on its composition, coffee should win hands down: a cup of tea has about half the dose (40 milligrams) of the stimulant caffeine that you would find in a standard cup of brewed filter coffee (80 to 115 milligrams). Yet this doesn’t necessarily reflect the jolt of the wake-up call.

对许多人来说,咖啡因的兴奋作用是我们选择这两种饮料的主要原因;在睡眼惺忪的清晨,咖啡因就像石油一样,给我们身体的引擎以能量。只考虑成分的话,咖啡可以轻松获胜:一杯茶的咖啡因含量(40毫克)大约只有标准杯过滤咖啡(80至115毫克)的一半。然而,这并非反映了它们的醒脑作用。

Dosing subjects with either tea or coffee, one study found that both beverages left subjects feeling similarly alert later in the morning.

通过让被试者饮用一定量的茶或咖啡,一项研究发现,这两种饮料都能让受试者在早晨晚些时候感到同样清醒。

Verdict: Against logic, tea seems to provide just as powerful a wake-up call as coffee. It’s a draw.

结论:虽然逻辑上讲不通,但茶跟咖啡的醒脑作用似乎不相上下。平局。

Sleep quality

睡眠质量

The biggest differences between coffee and tea may emerge once your head hits the pillow.

咖啡和茶之间最大的差异或许将集中体现在睡眠上。

Comparing people drinking the same volume of tea or coffee over a single day, researchers at the University of Surrey in the UK confirmed that although both drinks lend similar benefits to your attention during the day, coffee drinkers tend to find it harder to drop off at night – perhaps because the higher caffeine content finally catches up with you.

通过对比研究每天饮用等量的茶或咖啡的人,英国萨里大学的研究人员证实,尽管两种饮料在白天对注意力集中的作用差不多,但或许是因为咖啡里的咖啡因含量更高,喝咖啡的人晚上更难入睡。

Tea drinkers, in contrast, had longer and more restful slumbers.

相比之下,喝茶的人睡得更久更香。

Verdict: Tea offers many of the benefits of coffee, without the sleepless nights – a clear win.

结论:茶不仅拥有咖啡的许多好处,还不会带来不眠之夜——完胜

Tooth staining

牙齿变黄

Along with red wine, coffee and tea are both known to turn our pearly whites a murky yellow and brown. But which is worse?

众所周知,红酒、咖啡和茶都会把洁白的牙齿慢慢染成暗黄色或棕褐色。但哪个最糟糕?

Most dentists seem to agree that tea’s natural pigments are more likely to adhere to dental enamel than coffee’s – particularly if you use a mouthwash containing the common antiseptic chlorhexidine, which seems to attract and bind to the microscopic particles.

大多数牙医似乎一致认为,茶中的天然色素比咖啡的更易附着于牙釉质之上——尤其当你使用常见的洗必泰漱口水时,其中的消毒洗必泰能吸引并聚合微观粒子。

Verdict: If you want a perfect smile, coffee may be the lesser of two evils.

结论:如果你想展现完美笑容,两害相权取其轻,咖啡也许还好一点。

A balm for troubled souls…

不安灵魂的慰藉……

In England, it’s common to give “tea and sympathy” to a distressed friend – the idea being that a cup of Earl Grey is medicine for troubled minds. In fact, there is some evidence that tea can soothe your nerves: regular tea drinkers do tend to show a calmer physiological response to unsettling situations (such as public speaking), compared to people drinking herbal infusions. Overall, people who drink three cups a day appear to have a 37% lower risk of depression than those who do not drink tea.

英国人喜欢给烦恼苦闷的朋友送去“茶与同情”——这是由于他们认为伯爵茶能够治愈不安的灵魂。事实上,有证据表明,茶可以舒缓神经:与喝中草药的人相比,经常饮茶者在处理一些令人不安的情况(如公开演讲)时确实表现得更为镇静。总的来说,每天喝三杯茶的人比不喝茶的人罹患抑郁症的风险要低37%。

Coffee doesn’t have the same reputation; indeed, some report that it makes them feel like their nerves are jangling. Yet there is some evidence that it too may protect against long-term mental health problems. A recent “meta-analysis” (summarising the results of studies involving more than 300,000 participants) found that each cup of coffee a day seems to reduce your risk of developing depression by around 8%. In contrast, other beverages (such as sweetened soft drinks) only increase your risk of developing mental health problems.

咖啡并没有这种功效;事实上,有些人觉得咖啡会让人有些神经错乱。但是也有证据表明,咖啡能预防长期精神问题。最近的一项“荟萃分析”(总结了超过30万名参与者的研究结果)发现,每天一杯咖啡的人患抑郁症的风险比常人要低大约8%。相比之下,其他饮料(如甜味软饮)只会增加患精神疾病的风险。

Verdict: Based on this limited evidence, it’s a draw.

结论:基于有限的证据,平局。

…and a balm for bodies……

身体的万金油

托福TPO听说读写1-48文本及MP3资料压缩包-立即下载

Similarly tantalising, though preliminary, epidemiological studies have suggested that both coffee and tea offer many other health-giving benefits. A few cups of either beverage a day appears to reduce your risk of diabetes, for instance.

流行病学研究虽然才刚刚起步,但也很吸睛。该领域研究表明,咖啡和茶都对身体还有其它益处。例如,每天喝几杯会降低患糖尿病的风险。

Both drinks also seem to moderately protect the heart, although the evidence seems to be slightly stronger for coffee, while tea also appears to be slightly protective against developing a range of cancers – perhaps because of its antioxidants.

饮用这两种饮料能对心脏起到一定的保护作用,尽管证据显示似乎咖啡的功效更强,但许是因为茶中的抗氧化剂,茶对预防癌症也有些许功效。

Verdict: Another draw – both drinks are a surprising, health-giving elixir.

结论:还是平局——这两种饮料都是神奇的、有益健康的灵丹妙药。

Overall verdict: Much as we Brits would have liked tea to come out the clear victor, we have to admit there is little between the two drinks besides personal taste. Based solely on the fact that it allows you to get a better night’s sleep, we declare tea the winner.

总结:大部分英国人都会觉得茶很明显更胜一筹。但除了个人口味,必须承认的是两者的差异并不大。仅仅基于能让人好眠这一点,茶无疑是赢家。

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