China has one of the world's oldestcontinuous civilizations—despite invasions and occasional foreign rule. Acountry as vast as China with so long-lasting a civilization has a complexsocial and visual history, within which pottery and porcelain play a majorrole.
The function and status of ceramics inChina varied from dynasty to dynasty, so they may be utilitarian, burial,trade-collectors', or even ritual objects, according to their quality and theera in which they were made. The ceramics fall into three broadtypes—earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain—for vessels, architectural itemssuch as roof tiles, and modeled objects and figures. In addition, there was animportant group of sculptures made for religious use, the majority of whichwere produced in earthenware.
The earliest ceramics were fired toearthenware temperatures, but as early as the fifteenth century B.C.,high-temperature stone wares were being made with glazed surfaces. During theSix Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns in north China were producinghigh-fired ceramics of good quality. White wares produced in Hebei and Henanprovinces from the seventh to the tenth centuries evolved into the highlyprized porcelains of the Song dynasty (AD. 960-1279), long regarded as one ofthe high points in the history of China's ceramic industry. The tradition ofreligious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearlydelineated than that of stone wares or porcelains, for it embraces the oldcustom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images andarchitectural ornament. Ceramic products also include lead-glazed tomb modelsof the Han dynasty, three-color lead-glazed vessels and figures of the Tangdynasty, and Ming three-color temple ornaments, in which the motifs wereoutlined in a raised trail of slip—as well as the many burial ceramics producedin imitation of vessels made in materials of higher intrinsic value.
Trade between the West and the settled andprosperous Chinese dynasties introduced new forms and different technologies.One of the most far-reaching examples is the impact of the fine ninth-centuryAD. Chinese porcelain wares imported into the Arab world. So admired were thesepieces that they encouraged the development of earthenware made in imitation ofporcelain and instigated research into the method of their manufacture. Fromthe Middle East the Chinese acquired a blue pigment—a purified form of cobaltoxide unobtainable at that time in China—that contained only a low level ofmanganese. Cobalt ores found in China have a high manganese content, whichproduces a more muted blue-gray color. In the seventeenth century, the tradingactivities of the Dutch East India Company resulted in vast quantities ofdecorated Chinese porcelain being brought to Europe, which stimulated andinfluenced the work of a wide variety of wares, notably Delft. The Chinesethemselves adapted many specific vessel forms from the West, such as bottleswith long spouts, and designed a range of decorative patterns especially forthe European market.
Just as painted designs on Greek pots mayseem today to be purely decorative, whereas in fact they were carefully andprecisely worked out so that at the time, their meaning was clear, so it iswith Chinese pots. To twentieth-centuryeyes, Chinese pottery may appear merely decorative, yet to the Chinese the formof each object and its adornment had meaning and significance. The dragonrepresented the emperor, and the phoenix, the empress; the pomegranateindicated fertility, and a pair of fish, happiness; mandarin ducks stood forwedded bliss; the pine tree, peach, and crane are emblems of long life; and fishleaping from waves indicated success in the civil service examinations. Onlywhen European decorative themes were introduced did these meanings becomeobscured or even lost.
From early times pots were used in bothreligious and secular contexts. The imperial court commissioned work and in theYuan dynasty (A.D. 1279-1368) an imperial ceramic factory was established atJingdezhen. Pots played an important part in some religious ceremonies. Longand often lyrical descriptions of the different types of ware exist that assistin classifying pots, although these sometimes confuse an already large andcomplicated picture.
1. The word “status” in thepassage(Paragraph 2)is closest in meaning to
2.According to paragraph 2, which of thefollowing is true of Chinese ceramics?
A. The function of ceramics remained thesame from dynasty to dynasty.
B.The use of ceramics as trade objects isbetter documented than the use of ceramics as ritual objects.
C. There was little variation in qualityfor any type of ceramics over time.
D.Some religious sculptures were made usingthe earthenware type of ceramics.
3.The word “evolve” in the passage(Paragraph3)is closest in meaning to
4.Which of the sentences below bestexpresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence(Paragraph 3) inthe passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leaveout essential information.
A.While stone wares and porcelains arefound throughout most historical periods, religious sculpture is limited to theancient period.
B.Religious sculpture was created in mostperiods, but its history is less clear than that of stone wares or porcelainsbecause some old forms continued to be used even when new ones were developed.
C.While stone wares and porcelains changedthroughout history, religious sculpture remained uniform in form and use.
D.The historical development of religioussculpture is relatively unclear because religious sculptures sometimes resembleearthenware architectural ornaments.
5.Paragraph 3 supports all of the followingconcerning the history of the ceramic industry in China EXCEPT:
A.The earliest high-fired ceramics were ofpoor quality.
B. Ceramics produced during the Tang andMing dynasties sometimes incorporated multiple colors.
Earthenware ceramics were produced in Chinabefore stone wares were.
D.The Song dynasty period was notable forthe production of high quality porcelain ceramics.
6.The word “instigate” in thepassage(Paragraph 4)is closest in meaning to
7.According to paragraph 4, one consequenceof the trade of Chinese ceramics was
A. the transfer of a distinctive bluepigment from China to the Middle East
B.an immediate change from earthenwareproduction to porcelain production in European countries
C.Chinese production of wares made for theEuropean market
D.a decreased number of porcelain vesselsavailable on the European market
8.The word “whereas” in thepassage(Paragraph 5)is closest in meaning to
9.In paragraph 5, the author compares thedesigns on Chinese pots to those on Greek pots in order to
A.emphasize that while Chinese pots weredecorative, Greek pots were functional
B.argue that the designs on Chinese potshad specific meanings and were not just decorative
C.argue that twentieth-century scholars arebetter able to understand these designs than were ancient scholars
D.explain how scholars have identified themeaning of specific images on Chinese pots
10.Which of the following is mentioned inparagraph 5 as being symbolically represented on Chinese ceramics?
B. love of homeland
C. loyally to friends
D. success in trade
11.Paragraph 5 suggests which of thefollowing about the decorations on Chinese pottery?
A.They had more importance for aristocratsthan for ordinary citizens.
B.Their significance may have remainedclear had the Chinese not come under foreign influence.
C.They contain some of the same images thatappear on Greek pots
D.Their significance is now as clear totwentieth century observers as it was to the early Chinese.
12.The word “these” in the passage(Paragraph6)refers to
C.types of ware
13. Look at the four squares [■]thatindicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Wherecould the sentence best fit? Foreign trade was also responsible for certaininnovations in coloring.
Trade between the West and the settled andprosperous Chinese dynasties introduced new forms and different technologies.One of the most far-reaching examples is the impact of the fine ninth-centuryAD. Chinese porcelain wares imported into the Arab world. ■【A】So admiredwere these pieces that they encouraged the development of earthenware made inimitation of porcelain and instigated research into the method of theirmanufacture. ■【B】From the Middle East the Chinese acquired a blue pigment—a purifiedform of cobalt oxide unobtainable at that time in China—thatcontained only a low level of manganese. Cobalt ores found in China have a highmanganese content, which produces a more muted blue-gray color. ■【C】In theseventeenth century, the trading activities of the Dutch East India Companyresulted in vast quantities of decorated Chinese porcelain being brought toEurope, which stimulated and influenced the work of a wide variety of wares,notably Delft. ■【D】The Chinese themselves adapted many specific vessel forms from theWest, such as bottles with long spouts, and designed a range of decorativepatterns especially for the European market.
14. Directions: An introductory sentencefor a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary byselecting the THREE answer that express the most important ideas in thepassage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideasthat not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. Thisquestion is worth 2 points.
Ceramics have been produced in China for avery long time.
A.The Chinese produced earthenware,stoneware, and porcelain pottery and they used their ceramics for a variety ofutilitarian, architectural, and ceremonial purposes.
B. The shape and decoration of ceramicsproduced for religious use in China were influenced by Chinese ceramicsproduced for export.
C.As a result of trade relations, Chineseceramic production changed and Chinese influenced the ceramics production ofother countries.
D. Chinese burial ceramics have the longestand most varied history of production and were frequently decorated withwritten texts that help scholars date them.
E.Before China had contact with the West,the meaning of various designs used to decorate Chinese ceramics was wellunderstood.
F.Ceramics made in imperial factories wereused in both religious and non-religious contexts.
2.问题中的关键词不能用，所以排除法最好。A的dynasty todynasty做关键词定位至第一句，说反，错;B的trade objects和ritual objects做关键词定位至第一句，原文没有比较，错;C的quality做关键词定位至第一句，说根据它们质量决定用来干嘛，所以质量是有变化的，C错;D的religious和earthenware做关键词定位至最后一句，正确
4.原文的主要关系是因果，因果的结果部分包含了一个转折，所以从结构上说只有B和D可能正确。B正确，D错在原文说stoneware和porcelain比religious sculpture清楚，但没说religious sculpture不清楚，错
5.EXCEPT题，排除法。A的high-firedceramics做关键词定位至第二句，原文说good quality, 备选项说poor，反了，错，选;B的Tang and Ming Dynasty做关键词定位至最后一句，正确，不选;C的earthenware和stoneware做关键词定位至第一句，原文说最早的是earthenware，所以比stoneware早，所以C正确，不选;D的Song dynasty做关键词定位至第三句，正确，不选
7.以trade of Chineseceramics做关键词定位至倒数第二句，问结果，所以应该关注result in之后的内容，说大量的Chinese porcelain到了欧洲，影响了一系列ware，接着又说会专门为欧洲市场做一些ware，所以C正确;注意B尽管说到了change，但immediate是原文没说的;A没说;D说反了，应该是增加
8.注意句子中的seem和in fact，seem叫做看上去，也就是事实很可能不是这样，后面的in fact叫做事实上，也就是说前面说的很可能不是事实，两者呼应，都说明两句话之间的关系是转折，所以while正确
11.问题中关键词不明显，排除法。A的ordinarycitizens和aristocrat原文没说;B的foreign influence做关键词定位至最后一句的European，说直到引入欧洲theme之后中国原有的装饰的意思才被obscure，对应B，没有foreign influence那些意思不会改变，正确;C没说;D反了，应该是ancient更熟悉
12.these往前找，找主语。注意从句子一开始到exist之前都是句子的主语，但of之前的东西是整个句子的核心，所以答案是description，对于什么什么的描述，描述才是核心，不是types of ware
13.两个过渡点，名词foreign trade和coloring。foreigntrade对应原文第四句的from Middle East Chinese acquired blabla和倒数第二句的tradingactivities，所以B/C/D都有可能;coloring证明B或者C正确。按照正常逻辑，应该先总括，说外贸也使染色技术发生变化，接着再说怎么变的，所以B正确，C错误