为了帮助更多的 托福 考生们进行备考，特整理了关于托福TPO阅读部分，托福TPO是托福考生的必备资料，涵盖了历年考试的大量题型，帮助考生们提升高效备考效率。 下面一起来看看托福TPO19阅读原文+题目+答案解析-Succession, Climax, and Ecosystems。
托福TPO19阅读原文+题目+答案解析-Succession, Climax, and Ecosystems
1.According to paragraph 2, which of the following is a criticism of Clements' view of succession?
A. The principles of succession are more lawlike than Clements thought they are.
B. More evidence is needed to establish Clements’ predictions about succession.
C. The details of succession are affected by random processes.
D. Many of the factors that determine which plants will grow in an environment, such as the nature of the soil and the exposure to sun, do not change at all.
C 本段较短，可以快速扫完，也可以用人名和succession做关键词定位至最后一句，说很多因素都可以影响succession，所以正确答案是C。D提到了many factors，但change是原文没说的，错;A的比较原文没说，错;B是最具有迷惑性的选项，因为原文说没有被证实，也就是已经建立了只是没证实，但B说需要更多证据来建立Clemens的预测，也就是没建立，而且预测也不对，所以A错。
2.The word “substantiated” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A substantiate: 证实，确认。A是确证;B是发现;C是定义;D是宣传。所以正确答案是A的confirm。
3.The word “trend” in the passage is closest in meaning to
C. lawlike regularity
D, trend: 趋势。A是可能性;B是图片，景色;C是想法律一样的规则性;D是趋势。所以D的tendency正确。
4.The word “likewise” in the passage is closest in meaning to
B likewise: 同样地，此外。A是有时候;相似的;明显的;因此，结果。所以B的similarly是正确答案。
5.The word “legitimately” in the passage is closest in meaning to
C 这道题很多同学误选D. 其实，C properly 更好。前句说一些学者接受Clements， 对于climax的concept, 但拒绝C对于climax作为superorganism特征的概括。然后做了一个对比区分。An ant colony may be legitimately called a superorganism…. But there is no evidence for such an interacting communicative network in a climax plant formation. 这个对比区分的是两个范畴，动物的和植物的。如果把legitimately 理解为officially, formally,应该只举一个植物范畴的例子，构成“正式、官方、权威”和实际情况的转折。现在是两个范畴的对比，应该理解成： 一个领域“合理，有道理，正确”，另外一个领域“没有证据，没有道理”
6.According to paragraph 4, why do many authors prefer the term “association” to “community” when describing a climax plant formation?
A. Because the term “association” does not suggest the presence of a tight network involving interactive communication.
B. Because the term “association” indicates that the grouping is not necessarily beneficial to all members.
C. Because the term “community” indicates continuing dynamic development that a climax formation does not have.
D. Because the term “community” suggests an organization that has been designed for a specific purpose
A 细节题题，先读修辞点所在句子，in order to告诉你这句话中就含有目的了，将in order to后面的内容读了就找到答案，原句说为了强调这种互动的松散性，很多作者更愿意使用association，原文都说了是为了强调松散性，所以答案是A，不存在紧的network。B的beneficial to all members，C的dynamic development和D的specific purpose原文都没说。
7.In paragraph 5, the author challenges the idea of a “biome” by noting that
A. there are usually no very strong connections among the plants and animals living in a place
B. plants and animals respond in the same way to the same circumstances
C. particular combinations of flora and fauna do not generally come about purely by chance
D. some animals are dependent on specific kinds of plants for food
A 以biome做关键词定位至第二句，由于这句只是给出了biome的概念，没有challenge，所以往下看，下句说尽管有些动物与植物的关系是紧密的，但还是不能说biome，比如他们之间没有internal cohesion，所以答案是A，动植物之间没有紧密关系。B和C原文都没讲;D的food原文也没说，而且D也不是challenge上文提到的概念的，所以不对。
8.Why does the author make the statement, “Indeed, there are vast areas of spruce forest without moose” ?
A. To highlight a fact whose significance the ecologist Herbert Gleason had missed
B. To propose the idea that a spruce forest is by itself a superorganism
C. To emphasize that moose are not limited to a single kind of environment
D. To criticize the idea of a spruce-moose biome
D 修辞目的题，修辞点就是一个句子，所以看前一句，前句说spruce种群不受moose是否存在的影响，依然还是一个例子，所以看中心句，注意这段文字的中心句不是第一句，而是上一题中提到的第二句，说spruce-moose biome是不对的，所以答案是D。
9.The word “initiated” in the passage is closest in meaning to
C initiate: 开始，首创。A是同意;B是核实;C是开始;D是预见。所以正确答案是C的started。
10.According to paragraph 5, Gleason’s opposition to the Clementsian views of plant ecology was based on the claim that plant species grow in places where
A. they can enter into mutually beneficial relationships with other species
B. conditions suit them, regardless of whether particular other species are present
C. habitats are available for a wide variety of plant and animal species
D. their requirements are met, and those of most other species are not
11.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Unlike the terms “climax”, “biome,” and “superorganism,” which refer to the particular association of plants and animals at a given location, the term “ecosystem” refers specifically to the physical factors within an environment.
B. The terms “climax,” “biome,” “superorganism,” and “ecosystem” all refer to the system of plants and animals in an associated environment, but some are more controversial than others.
C. When the older terms of ecology became too technical, they were replaced by the more popular and more widely used term “ecosystem.”
D. The term “ecosystem” gradually replaced discredited terms for the combination of a physical environment and the plants and animals living together in it.
D原句当中的with结构是非主要成分，主要成分是：采用了ecosystem形容生物和环境的associated system，正确答案D。A的后半句错，eco不是单只physical factor，而是系统;B和C都错在将原句的主干和非主干混合，不选。
12.According to paragraph 6, what did ecologists mainly study when the ecosystem concept was the dominant paradigm?
A. The physical factors present in different environments
B. The typical activities of animals and the effect of those activities on plants
C. The rates at which ecosystems changed from one kind to another
D. The flow of energy and matter through ecosystems
13.Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit ?
They may be more interested in researching, for example, the adaptations that some aquatic animals undergo to survive in dry desert environments..
C 两个过渡点，代词they和名词adaption，从名词adaption可以得出B或者C正确;代词they指的是倒数第二句中的younger ecologists，所以they应该放在名词之后，所以B错C对。
14.Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provied below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. The study of the combination of plant species that inhabit a particular locality became a scientific discipline toward the end of the nineteenth century.
A.Areas that are recovering from serious disturbances like volcanic eruptions and heavy floods provide special opportunities to observe the development of plant communities.
B.Whether a given species will be found in a given ecosystem strongly depends on what other species it would interact with in that ecosystem.
C.Computer-aided studies of entire system of associated organisms together with their environment provide a solid basis for current studies of specific ecological problems.
D.According to the earliest theories of ecology, the development of plant communities proceeds in lawlike fashion and results in stable climax communities.
E.The idea of associations of plants and animals that function as “superorganisms” was later rejected by biologists who saw no strong evidence in support of that idea.
F.The once popular idea of communities as integrated ecosystems has been largely rejected by modern ecologists, who are more interested in problems involving behavior and adaptations.
D.E.F Areas选项MS是第一段中的一个细节，但提供研究机会原文完全没讲，不选。Whether选项与第五段的最后一句相反，不选.Computer选项与第七段第三句说反，而且即使说对也是个细节，不选.According选项对应原文第二和第三段的首句，正确.The idea选项对应原文第四段第二句，正确.The once选项对应原文第七段第一句，正确.
The McMillan Plan
As the city approached its centennial; there was a call to develop a comprehensive park system for the city. As early as 1898, a committee was formed to meet with President William McKinley to propose the erection of a monument to commemorate the centennial of the city. A joint committee formed by Congress held its first meeting in February 1900 with Senator James McMillan of Michigan as chairman, and Charles Moore as secretary. At the same time, plans were put forward for the development of a Mall which would include the newly reclaimed Potomac Flats. As the bureaucracy planned for the centennial, the American Institute of Architects (AIA) joined the fray. AIA leaders envisioned the nation's capital as the perfect place for the group to express the ideals of the City Beautiful movement promoted by the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The architect of this pivotal fair designed Beaux Arts Classical architecture in a grand and ordered civic space.
When the Senate Commission was formed in 1901 to explore and plan the design of the city, the project then encompassed the historic core. The illustrious committee was comprised of Daniel Burnham, a visionary of the World's Columbian Exposition, as well as landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., architect Charles F.McKim, and sculptor Augustus St. Gardens.
Foremost in the minds of these men was the amazing foresight and genius of Pierre L'Enfant. The committee lamented the fragmented Mall marred by a railroad station and focused upon restoring it to the uninterrupted greensward envisioned by L'Enfant. In total, the forward-looking plans made by the McMillan Commission called for: re-landscaping the ceremonial core, consisting of the Capitol Grounds and Mall, including new extensions west and south of the Washington Monument; consolidating city railways and alleviating at-grade crossings; clearing slums; designing a coordinated municipal office complex in the triangle formed by Pennsylvanian Avenue, 15th Street, and the Mall, and establishing a comprehensive recreation and park system that would preserve the ring of Civil War fortifications around the city.
To protect the new goals introduced by the McMillan study, the AIA appealed to President Theodore Roosevelt to form a fine arts commission. Established by Congress in 1910 during the Taft Administration, the Commission of Fine Arts (CFA) was created as a consulting organization to the government on the design of bridges, parks, paintings, and other artistic matters; an executive order later that year added the design review of all public buildings.
Influenced by the designs of several European cities and 18th century gardens such as France's Palace of Versailles, the plan of Washington, DC was symbolic and innovative for the new nation. Only limited changes were made to the historic city-bounded by Florida Avenue on the north and the waterways on the east, west and south-until after the Civil War. The foremost manipulation of L’Enfant plan began in the 19th century, and was codified in 1901 when the McMillan Commission directed urban improvements that resulted in the most elegant example of City Beautiful tenets in the nation. L’Enfant plan was magnified and expanded during the early decades of the 20th century with the reclamation of land for waterfront parks, parkways, an improved Mall and new monuments and vistas. Two hundred years since its design, the integrity of the plan of Washington is largely unimpaired-boasting a legal enforced height restriction, landscaped parks, wide avenues, and open space allowing intended vistas. Constant vigilance is needed by the agencies responsible for design review, it their charge to continue the vision of L'Enfant.
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